This research introduces an energy-efficient multipath routing protocol designed for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) using a fitness function. The protocol aims to optimize energy consumption, prolong network lifetime, and enhance overall communication reliability in dynamic and resource-constrained MANET environments. By integrating a fitness function, the protocol intelligently selects and maintains multipath routes based on factors such as residual energy, link stability, and communication overhead.

The protocol employs a proactive approach to periodically assess the fitness of available paths and adapt the routing decisions dynamically. Simulation experiments are conducted using NS2 (Network Simulator 2) to evaluate the performance of the Energy-Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol under varying network conditions and traffic loads.

Key performance metrics, including energy consumption, end-to-end delay, and packet delivery ratio, are analyzed to assess the effectiveness of the protocol. Comparative studies with traditional routing protocols highlight the advantages of the proposed energy-efficient multipath approach in extending network lifetime and improving communication reliability.

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